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low price of study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride in china

  • Study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

    2021-1-1 · In this study, compare the treatment efficiency and economic value of new generation PFC flocculants and PAC flocculants with optimal conditions. 3. Results and discussion3.1. Identify optimum pH. In quick test to determine the pH showed PFC seems to fit the pH range from 9 to 10, with pH below 9, coagulation process can not occur.

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  • Coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chloride:

    Coagulation mechanisms of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) at various dosages were studied using a conventional jar test at different final and initial pH values during treating kaolin suspension. The optimal final pH and dosages for PACl were obtained based on residual turbidity and zeta potential of flocs. The coagulation zones at various PACl ...

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  • Effect of cations on the removal rate of chloride ions

    2021-3-17 · Precipitation dechlorination has the advantage of being a simple process with a low cost. However, there are few reports on the effect of cations on dechlorination. In this study, we investigated the effect of cations in high-salt wastewater on the removal of chlorine ions by cuprous chloride precipitation and analysed the corresponding mechanism.

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  • Comparison of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate

    2016-7-14 · The results showed that ferric chloride of 20 mg/L and aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L were the optimal dosages for total phosphorus (TP) removal, and the TP removal efficiency was over 80%. In long-term continuous operations, both ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate effectively mitigated membrane fouling, with the corresponding growth rate of transmembrane pressure decreased to 0.08 and 0.067 …

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  • Coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chloride:

    2015-6-1 · For the final pH 6.0, the ZP at the optimal PACl dosage is 6.2 mV although the coagulation efficiency at the optimal dosage is not satisfactory. Furthermore, it can be seen in Fig. 4 that more PACl precipitates form as PACl dosage increases under the conditions for optimal coagulation performance. It seems that the ZP of particles and PACl precipitates dominate charge neutralization coagulation …

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  • Mechanistic insights into the effect of poly ferric ...

    2021-2-1 · It is worth noting that the hydrolysis of ferric chloride also generates “hydroxide polymers”, however, such species are generally scattered in liquid/solid phase at neutral conditions and easily decomposed by anaerobic microbes and further utilized for metabolism (Qin et al., 2019; Yu et al., 2015a), whereas the PFS-derived “hydroxide polymers”, could be expressed as (Fe i O k (OH) ij-2k) …

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  • Novel insight into sludge dewaterability mechanism

    2020-3-1 · Today, polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) has emerged as a low cost and efficient inorganic polymeric coagulant . This reagent coagulates particles better than PAC and PFS , potentially effectively improving sludge dewaterability, due to its stronger charge neutralization effect. However, coagulants are limited in their ability to deeply dewater sludge, because coagulants do not effectively …

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  • Comparing Aluminium Sulfate and Poly-Aluminium

    2021-7-9 · of aluminium sulfate and poly-aluminum chloride was evaluated at different pH values and coagulant dosage in order to find optimal operational conditions for low to high turbidity waters. The influence of lime, as a coagulant aid, on coagulation process was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the

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  • Characteristic of silver nanowires prepared by polyol ...

    2021-4-28 · It can be concluded from experimental data that when the reaction temperature is 150°C, the ratio of AgNO 3 to PVP is 1:3, the drop rate of PVP is 65 ml h –1, with the existence of ferric chloride (FeCl 3), and the AgNWs exhibit optimal morphology with the diameter ranging from 60 to 200 nm. The results in this study will provide experimental guide for controllable formation of AgNWs.

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  • Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals role of iron ...

    2021-5-28 · A recent study of 277 isolated Actinobacteria strains belonging to 17 genera found that 39.4% display a capacity for reducing FeCl 3 under oxic and initially neutral pH conditions, and living ...

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  • Optimal conditions of Al and Fe extraction from

    2012-8-9 · This paper reports pioneering work in identifying an alternative coagulation agent of wastewater treatment, given the availability of commonly used agents are of a higher cost relative to more natural sources, such as soil. The alternative proposed is laterite soil from northern Malaysia because it contains high amounts of Al and Fe, which are well-known coagulants.

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  • Effect of cations on the removal rate of chloride ions

    2021-3-17 · Precipitation dechlorination has the advantage of being a simple process with a low cost. However, there are few reports on the effect of cations on dechlorination. In this study, we investigated the effect of cations in high-salt wastewater on the removal of chlorine ions by cuprous chloride precipitation and analysed the corresponding mechanism.

    Get Price
  • Comparing Aluminium Sulfate and Poly-Aluminium

    2021-7-9 · order to find optimal operational conditions for low to highly turbidity waters. The influence of lime, as a coagu-lant aid, in accompany with alum and PAC was also stud-ied. Materials and Methods Jar test experiments were conducted within a pH range of 4-8. Aluminium sulfate and poly-aluminum chloride …

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  • Effect of polyaluminium chloride water treatment sludge

    2015-9-19 · phosphorus release in any anoxic conditions (Yonghong et al., 2005). The use of PAC however, still ultimately yields sludge rich in aluminium hereafter referred to as polyaluminium water treatment sludge (PA-WTS), which poses a challenge to dispose. From a chemical point of view, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is similar to alum,

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  • Comparison of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate

    2016-7-14 · The results showed that ferric chloride of 20 mg/L and aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L were the optimal dosages for total phosphorus (TP) removal, and the TP removal efficiency was over 80%. In long-term continuous operations, both ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate effectively mitigated membrane fouling, with the corresponding growth rate of ...

    Get Price
  • Study on Environmental Materials with Treatment of

    This study aimed at, pre-treatment of sweet potato starch wastewater and acquisition the application conditions of environmental materials though coagulation precipitation. The removal rates of COD and turbidity were investigated by process to find kind and quantity of suitable coagulant, quantity of coagulate aids, pH and setting time. The results showed that poly aluminum ferric chloride ...

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  • Optimization of Electrospinning Conditions for Magnetic ...

    2021-7-7 · prepared on the optimum conditions: 12wt% concentration, 20 kV voltages, 20 cm tips to collector distance and 0.5 mL/h flow rate. At the optimal operating conditions for electrospinning, the role of MNPs content on the nanofibers diameter and specific surface area were explored. It was shown for the first time that, when the Fe 3 O 4

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  • Preparation and Coagulation Behavior of a Novel

    2015-3-22 · L. Gao, Study on preparation and application of polyaluminum ferric chloride [Ph.D. thesis], Harbin University of Science & Technology, Harbin, China, 2007. D. An, Study on the removal of algae with coagulation by polymeric aluminum chloride compounded with different size of clay [Ph.D. thesis], Qingdao University, Qingdao, China, 2008.

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  • Comparison of four flocculants for removing algae in ...

    2015-2-5 · Cyanobacterial blooms are a significant concern in Dianchi Lake and other freshwater bodies in China. Effects of dose, duration, pH, and colony size on algae and turbidity removal in artificial water containing Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated for polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC), Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, and Fe2(SO4)3. We also investigated the performance …

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  • Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals role of iron ...

    2021-5-28 · A recent study of 277 isolated Actinobacteria strains belonging to 17 genera found that 39.4% display a capacity for reducing FeCl 3 under oxic and initially neutral pH conditions, and living ...

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  • Optimization and economic evaluation of modified ...

    2018-10-17 · Poly aluminum chloride (PAC) is a mineral macro molecule in terms of composition and its monomers are dual-core complexes of aluminum (Wang et al. 2015). This compound forms multi-nuclear complexes in low concentrations and in aqueous media; this property has given PAC the unique ability to be applied in the process of coagulation and ...

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  • Optimization of Coagulation Pretreatment Conditions in a ...

    The goal of this project was to identify optimal coagulation pretreatment conditions and cleaning protocols in a pilot-scale ceramic membrane system. A matrix of coagulation conditions (coagulant dose and pH) was investigated using aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride at two source waters (river and lake).

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  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology Journal

    2011-3-8 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology Article September 2020. 3-Hydroxypyridine Dehydrogenase HpdA Is Encoded by a Novel Four-Component Gene Cluster and Catalyzes the First Step of 3-Hydroxypyridine Catabolism in Ensifer adhaerens HP1. Haixia Wang, Xiaoyu Wang, Hao Ren, Xuejun Wang and.

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  • Coagulant Optimization and Effect Research of Low ...

    Based on jar test, with different matching coagulants of PFA, PSFeZn, PSFe, PAC, Al2(SO4) 3, FeCl3, PAM etc., screen the optimal coagulant and coagulant dose suited for low-temperature and high-color source water treatment, explore reaction mechanisms, make economic analysis. The results show that: the combination of 2mg/LPFA and 0.005 mg/L nonionic PAM obtains the best removal efficiency ...

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  • On the importance of pH value in coagulation |

    2019-4-5 · However, in this case, the optimal pH for a mixture of HS + COM (pH 5.0–6.2) related to optimal pH ranges for the coagulation of HS (5.0–6.0) and COM peptides/proteins (5.0–6.7). The impact on coagulation of interactions between AOM and other impurities present in raw water are detailed by Pivokonský et al..

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  • Colonisation dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes

    2021-6-9 · At 37 °C the growth rate and doubling times ranged from 0.01315 to 0.01468 min −1 and 43.55 to 48.61 min, respectively, reflective of typical L. monocytogenes growth under optimal conditions ...

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  • Improved productivity of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)

    2015-3-15 · A particularly successful polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in industrial applications is poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). However, one of the major obstacles for wider application of PHB is the cost of its production and purification. Therefore, it is desirable to discover a method for producing PHB in large quantities at a competitive price. Glycerol is a cheap and widely used carbon source that can ...

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  • High Thermoelectric Power Factor of a

    2017-3-20 · Thermoelectric properties. To obtain the optimal thermoelectric performance of conjugated polymers, their doping levels should be accurately controlled 11,12,13,14,15,16,17.In this study, we ...

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  • An in vitro study of bare and poly(ethylene glycol)-co ...

    2009-5-12 · Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ammonium persulfate and methylene chloride (DCM) were obtained from Merck (Germany). Fumaryl chloride was purified by distillation at 161 °C under ambient pressure. Anhydrous DCM was achieved by distillation under reflux conditions …

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  • A study on dose response of NIPAM-based dosimeter

    2011-6-3 · The newly manufactured N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel is composed of four components, i.e., gelatin, monomer (NIPAM), crosslinker (N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide, Bis), and antioxidant (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride, THPC). In this study, we investigated the effects of gel composition on the dose response of NIPAM polymer gel.

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  • Journal of Hazardous Materials

    2020-11-3 · died. The price of FeSO 4·7H 2O is ¥9.0 per Kg, and the price of PMS (¥280.0 per Kg) is 127.27 times that of 30 % H 2O 2 (¥2.2 per Kg), so the actual usage of PMS cannot be equivalent to that of H 2O 2. It is more practical to compare the two systems under the optimal operating conditions and the same cost. 2. Materials and methods 2.1 ...

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  • Comparison and optimization of the performance of

    2019-11-14 · This study aims to assess the efficiency of two natural-based coagulants, namely calcium lactate and tannic acid, and compare them with conventional coagulants, including polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride. Jar test experiments were performed on the raw inlet water of the Isfahan water treatment plant (IWTP) in Iran.

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  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology Journal

    2011-3-8 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology Article September 2020. 3-Hydroxypyridine Dehydrogenase HpdA Is Encoded by a Novel Four-Component Gene Cluster and Catalyzes the First Step of 3-Hydroxypyridine Catabolism in Ensifer adhaerens HP1. Haixia Wang, Xiaoyu Wang, Hao Ren, Xuejun Wang and.

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  • Co-delivery of doxorubicin and recombinant plasmid

    In this study, the optimized growth conditions of MTB AMB-1 were investigated for enhancing both bacterial growth and production of BMs. The results showed that the optimal conditions of culture are an oxygen concentration of 4.0%, a pH value of 7.0, 20 μmol/L of ferrous sulfate, 800 mg/L of sodium nitrate, and 200 mg/L of succinic acid.

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  • Study of Synthesis and Flocculation Properties of New ...

    2019-9-9 · The optimal synthesis conditions were as follows: total mass fraction of monomer is 35 wt%, molar ratio of AM, DM, and DMC12 is 4 : 1 : 1, total mass fraction of monomer is 35%, and dosage of initiator is 0.6 wt% ((NH 4) 2 S 2 O 8 : NaHSO 3 is 1 : 1). Under the optimized reaction conditions, the molecular weight of P(AM-DM-DMC12) is .

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  • Ferric sulfate | Fe2(SO4)3 - PubChem

    2006-5-3 · The physical properties of natural organic matter (NOM) flocs, such as size, growth rate, and strength, were investigated using a laser diffraction particle sizing device. Conditions were set such that varying carbon coagulant ratio and zeta potential could both be investigated. Results demonstrated a link between zeta potential and coagulation and flocculation performance, with the production ...

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  • The Impact of Zeta Potential on the Physical

    Except for optimizing the Si-based materials themselves, advanced design of polymer binders plays a crucial role in ensuring the stable cycling of Si-based anodes and has attracted substantial attention. 27-31 Polymer binder occupies only a small proportion (<5 wt%) in the commercial LIBs electrodes, serving to glue all components (active ...

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  • A facile preparation of immobilized naringinase on ...

    A facile preparation of immobilized naringinase on polyethyleneimine-modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanomaterials with high activity Chan Yu,a Qian Li, *a Jing Tian,a Honglei Zhan,a Xinyu Zheng,a Shujing Wang,a Xitong Sun*b and Xiyan Sun*c Polyethyleneimine-modified Fe

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  • A cationic polyacrylamide dispersion synthesis by ...

    2021-7-7 · Full Article. A CATIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE DISPERSION SYNTHESIS BY DISPERSION POLYMERIZATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION. Yufeng Wang, a,b, * Kefu Chen, a Lihuan Mo, a,* and Huiren Hu c A cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) dispersion, the copolymer of acrylamide (AM) and acryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC), has been synthesized through dispersion …

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  • Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris biomass harvesting by ...

    2018-6-28 · The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate chitosan flocculation performance in the harvesting of C. vulgaris biomass and determine its optimal dose, (2) to disclose the sedimentation properties of C. vulgaris biomass flocculated by chitosan, (3) to reveal the recyclability of the spent medium from flocculation to regrow microalgae and ...

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  • Study of Synthesis and Flocculation Properties of New ...

    2019-9-9 · The optimal synthesis conditions were as follows: total mass fraction of monomer is 35 wt%, molar ratio of AM, DM, and DMC12 is 4 : 1 : 1, total mass fraction of monomer is 35%, and dosage of initiator is 0.6 wt% ((NH 4) 2 S 2 O 8 : NaHSO 3 is 1 : 1). Under the optimized reaction conditions, the molecular weight of P(AM-DM-DMC12) is .

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  • Study on the preparation of granular alum sludge

    2019-6-15 · P adsorption by GASA reached 0.90 mg/g. The effluent phosphorus concentration of actual tail water decreased to 0.49 mg/L and the removal rate reached 73.5% when the GASA dosage was 20 g/L. The findings of this study are important for the further development of a low-cost adsorbent material for P removal in the future.

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  • The feasibility of Cassia fistula gum with polyaluminum ...

    2015-2-6 · Thus, the present study focused on the potential of gums extracted from CF and PAC to reduce the color of reactive black 5 (RB5) and reactive blue 19 (RB19), together with the determination of the optimal factors, such as pH, agi-tation speed, initial dye concentration (IDC), coagulants dosage ( gum and CF PAC) and reaction time.

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  • Molecules | Free Full-Text | Enhanced Enzymatic

    2020-4-21 · In this study, a procedure for producing calcium carbonate whisker through yellow phosphorus slag carbonation without adding any crystal control agents was proposed. The influence of process parameters on the crystal phase and morphology of the product was discussed. The content of aragonite in the product was more than 90% under optimal conditions. The whiteness of the product …

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  • Synthesis and characterization of calcium carbonate ...

    1996-1-8 · Heat and mass transfer in liquid desiccant air-conditioning process at low flow conditions. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 2009, 14 (9-10) , 3599-3607.

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  • Comparison between Random and Structured

    Although blade-coating technology has the advantage of low cost, the price of the HTL (especially organic materials) is still not to be underestimated. Therefore, Huang et al. removed the HTL to simplify the device architecture of blade-coated PSCs via molecular doping. 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) was used as a ...

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  • Characteristics and Components of Poly-Aluminum

    2019-10-8 · Poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) is effective for controlling arsenate concentration than the . 74 . above-mentioned coagulants because PACl s more removearsenate than do conventional . 75 . coagulants, such as aluminum sulfate and chloride, at both acidic and alkaline pH, as well as at . 76 . neutral pH Fan et al. 2003

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  • A CATIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE DISPERSION SYNTHESIS

    At the optimal reaction conditions, the relative molecular weight of the CPAM dispersion was 4.2×106, ... State Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, United Lab of Resource Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangzhou 510640 China ; b: ... has been widely used because of its effectiveness and low price ...

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  • Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and

    2017-1-21 · This study systematically determined the optimal dosage ratio and the viscosity (η) of co-coagulants, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and poly dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDMDAAC), on coagulation performance and membrane fouling in a hybrid coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process for natural organic matter (NOM) removal.

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  • Effect of the dosage ratio and the viscosity of PAC ...

    2021-2-26 · Chloride solution (100 mg L –1) was used to study the effect of volume of chloride solution on the length of the white-colored band by keeping the volume and concentration of silver nitrate constant at 7.5 μL and 0.1 mol L –1, respectively. Figure 4 shows that the length of the white-colored band increased with volume in a range of 15–45 ...

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  • Indicator-Free Argentometric Titration for Distance

    Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. MNPs were manufactured by a conventional co-precipitation method as described previously. 8 In brief, ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferrous chloride tetrahydrate (2:1) were dissolved in 600 mL of deionized (DI) water. After purging the solution with argon gas, 0.36 g of docusate sodium salt in 16 mL of hexane was added as a surfactant, and the solution ...

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  • In vitro evaluation of novel polymer-coated magnetic ...

    2021-3-13 · The PLL–poly(HPMA) bottlebrush polymer coatings were produced using grafting-from techniques by polymerizing HPMA from the surface (route A and B) and grafting-to of a presynthesized PLL-poly(HPMA) bottlebrush (route C); the latter case—taking place fully under ambient conditions with only water as a solvent—is both very easy for repeated ...

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  • PLL–Poly(HPMA) Bottlebrush-Based Antifouling

    2021-2-25 · synthesis was investigated. CDs/Fe3+ composites were prepared by mixing CDs with ferric chloride in a particular proportion. A microplate reader measured the optical properties of CDs or CDs/Fe3+ composites. Based on the “on-off-on” principle, a batch, rapid and sensitive method for determining ascorbic acid content was established ...

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  • In vitro evaluation of novel polymer-coated magnetic ...

    Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. MNPs were manufactured by a conventional co-precipitation method as described previously. 8 In brief, ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferrous chloride tetrahydrate (2:1) were dissolved in 600 mL of deionized (DI) water. After purging the solution with argon gas, 0.36 g of docusate sodium salt in 16 mL of hexane was added as a surfactant, and the solution ...

    Get Price
  • PLL–Poly(HPMA) Bottlebrush-Based Antifouling

    2021-3-13 · The PLL–poly(HPMA) bottlebrush polymer coatings were produced using grafting-from techniques by polymerizing HPMA from the surface (route A and B) and grafting-to of a presynthesized PLL-poly(HPMA) bottlebrush (route C); the latter case—taking place fully under ambient conditions with only water as a solvent—is both very easy for repeated ...

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  • Nanoparticle-based biosensors for detection of ...

    Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles have emerged as an alternative source of cancer biomarkers in liquid biopsies. Despite their clinical potential, traditional methods for isolation and analysis have hampered their translation into the clinic. The use of nanomaterial-based biosensors can speed up the devel Recent Open Access Articles Journal of Materials Chemistry B Recent Review Articles ...

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  • Efficient fermentative production of polymer-grade d ...

    2016-1-12 · Background Polylactic acid (PLA) is one important chemical building block that is well known as a biodegradable and a biocompatible plastic. The traditional lactate fermentation processes need CaCO3 as neutralizer to maintain the desired pH, which results in an amount of insoluble CaSO4 waste during the purification process. To overcome such environmental issue, alkaliphilic organisms have …

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  • Frontiers | Review on Stress Tolerance in

    2021-2-25 · synthesis was investigated. CDs/Fe3+ composites were prepared by mixing CDs with ferric chloride in a particular proportion. A microplate reader measured the optical properties of CDs or CDs/Fe3+ composites. Based on the “on-off-on” principle, a batch, rapid and sensitive method for determining ascorbic acid content was established ...

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  • Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots and Their

    In this study, glnB, glnZ, glnB glnZ, and glnD mutants were examined to determine PHB production under low-C/N-ratio conditions. The bacterial stains used in this study are listed in Table Table1. 1. All of the strains were routinely grown in MMAB medium at 30°C. Kanamycin (25 μg/ml), tetracycline (10 μg/ml), spectinomycin (50 μg/ml), and ...

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  • Involvement of glnB, glnZ, and glnD Genes in the ...

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a semicrystalline synthetic polyester, completely derived from fossil fuel, with good processability and a low melting point of 60 °C. The mechanical properties of PCL mainly depend on its molecular weight, crystallinity, as well as porosity, and …

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  • Becoming Sustainable, The New Frontier in Soft

    2021-5-5 · After the discovery of a free radical polymerization route of ethylene into a highly branched low-density polyethylene at extreme reaction conditions in the early 1930s by Gibson and Fawcett, two different catalyst systems, based on, respectively, chromium and titanium active sites, were developed in the 1950s operating at considerably milder reaction conditions and giving a more linear and ...

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  • Heterogeneity in the Fragmentation of Ziegler

    2019-9-5 · Thanks to its low cost and unique aroma-containing structure, pitch has become the most preferred carbonaceous material. Sugars are rich in variety and easy to collect. The price of these sugars is also acceptable, and they are less polluting than pitch, although a detailed comparison of the different varieties is lacking.

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