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cost of study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

  • Study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

    2021-1-1 · The treatment efficiency of PAC in the reference studies will also be compared with PFC under optimal conditions. Finally, from the optimum usage amounts, a treatment cost for 1 m3 of wastewater will be calculated to compare the economic efficiency of using PAC and PFC. Content 1. Find the optimal conditions for PFC flocculation

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  • Comparison of poly ferric chloride and poly titanium ...

    2021-1-28 · According to the results of the study, the optimal coagulant PTC and PFC dosage was 600 and 800 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the costs of the coagulation-flocculation process for treatment of 1 m 3 of paper and cardboard wastewater using PTC and PFC were estimated to …

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  • Preparation of polymeric phosphate aluminum-ferric ...

    2021-3-19 · Polymeric phosphate aluminum-ferric chloride (PPAFC) in this study was prepared. In order to obtain the optimum conditions for preparation of PPAFC, resulting in a better turbidity removal efficiency, parameters such as the molar ratio of Al/Fe, P/(Al+Fe), OH/(Al+Fe) as well as the reaction temperature were examined. Results showed that the

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  • Appraisal and ranking of poly-aluminium chloride,

    2020-8-1 · The coagulants used in the current study produced poor N removals compared to SS and TP removals. Similar to the current study, Cameron and Di (2019) reported a maximum TN removal of 57%, with a corresponding effluent concentration of 87 mg L −1 using poly-ferric sulphate coagulant to treat DSW at optimum dosage of 214 mg Fe L −1.

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  • Production of Industrial Coagulant (Poly Aluminium ...

    2019-7-5 · obtained from the literature. Reports show that Ferric chloride, alum and aluminium chloride has optimum mixing speed of 120, 140 and 140rpm at pH 4, 4 and 6 at 35℃. . Flocculation of latex effluent was carried conditions. Results and Discussion Preparation of poly aluminium chloride (PAC) From 20 cans, 190 g of aluminium powder was

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  • Efficiency Comparison of PolyDADMAC Coagulant

    2017-11-1 · In this research, the coagulation of raw water was studied using PolyDADMAC alone, and mixed coagulant of PolyDADMAC and ferric chloride at various dose and ferric chloride alone were compared. The study range was selected for turbidity (NTU3850, 80), pH (9-5) and different concentrations of coagulant material .Data analysis was performed using Excel, SPSS software and …

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  • Simultaneous presence of poly titanium chloride and

    2020-8-1 · In this study, chemical consumption costs of the enhanced coagulation process for As(V) removal included the cost of the Fe 2 O 3-Mn 2 O 3 nanocomposite and consumed coagulants. The calculated cost of the Fe 2 O 3-Mn 2 O 3 nanocomposite and PTCwere0.16€/g and 1.2€/kg, respectively. Based on the results of this study, the optimum nanocomposite and coagulants dosage was 20 mg/L …

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  • Mechanistic insights into the effect of poly ferric ...

    2021-2-1 · It is worth noting that the hydrolysis of ferric chloride also generates “hydroxide polymers”, however, such species are generally scattered in liquid/solid phase at neutral conditions and easily decomposed by anaerobic microbes and further utilized for metabolism (Qin et al., 2019; Yu et al., 2015a), whereas the PFS-derived “hydroxide polymers”, could be expressed as (Fe i O k (OH) ij-2k) …

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  • Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation

    2013-10-15 · However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca(2+) and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal.

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  • Comprehensive Recovery of Valuable Metals From

    2021-6-7 · Increasing the concentration of chloride ions in the chlorine-leaching system is beneficial to the leaching of target metals. Ferric chloride was used as an auxiliary leaching agent in this study. Cl − can increase the concentration of chloride ion in the leaching system, but Fe 3+ can also act as an oxidant to promote the leaching of impurity metals. The leaching rate of Mg remains unchanged, and …

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  • Appraisal and ranking of poly-aluminium chloride,

    2020-8-1 · The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effectiveness of three chemical coagulants – poly-aluminium chloride (PACl), ferric chloride (FeCl 3) and alum – in improving effluent quality, and (2) assess the properties of the sludge that is generated as by …

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  • Production of Industrial Coagulant (Poly Aluminium ...

    2019-7-5 · obtained from the literature. Reports show that Ferric chloride, alum and aluminium chloride has optimum mixing speed of 120, 140 and 140rpm at pH 4, 4 and 6 at 35℃. . Flocculation of latex effluent was carried conditions. Results and Discussion Preparation of poly aluminium chloride (PAC) From 20 cans, 190 g of aluminium powder was

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  • (PDF) Effectiveness of poly Aluminium ferric chloride

    Effectiveness of poly Aluminium ferric chloride for turbidity and color removal from low to medium turbid water. 2014. Afshin Ebrahimi. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER.

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  • Mechanistic insights into the effect of poly ferric ...

    2021-2-1 · 1. Introduction. Poly ferric sulfate (PFS), the polymerized iron salts, can provide a variety of nucleic hydroxyl high-valence complex ions and hydrolyze to the highly cross-linked hydrophobic multinucleate and multichain-hydroxyl polymers after dissolving in aqueous phase, making it possess the high coagulation efficiency (Jiang et al., 1998; Zouboulis et al., 2008).

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  • Preparation and coagulation performance of poly

    2011-3-1 · Poly-ferric-aluminum-silicate-sulfate (PFASS) with various (Al + Fe)/Si molar ratios was prepared from fly ash to evaluate their coagulation efficiencies in oily wastewater, and the structure and morphology of which were characterized by infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Therefore, the results indicate that 16:1 (Al + Fe)/Si mole …

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  • Fabrication and characterization of poly(ferric chloride ...

    2014-4-2 · Derived mainly from processes including bleaching, rinsing, dyeing, printing and starching, the printing, and dyeing, wastewater was characterized by high chromaticity, large emission, complex composition, high levels of organic pollutants, and poor biodegradability [1–3].Due to the presence of toxic (hazardous) substances in dyeing wastewater and its severe contamination to the environment ...

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  • Modified coagulation processes using polyferric

    2021-4-7 · In a study, optimal doses for ferric chloride, alum, and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were reported 400, 300, and 200 mg/L, respectively, at optimum pH 7, and initial dye concentration of 25 mg/L with removal efficiencies of 81, 92, and 91%, respectively, for RB19 dye (Assadi et al. 2013). It indicates the superiority of PFC and PTC over ferric ...

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  • Simultaneous presence of poly titanium chloride and

    2020-8-1 · High rate Arsenic (As (V)) removal from contaminated water resources was investigated by simultaneous presence of poly titanium chloride (PTC) and Fe 2 O 3-Mn 2 O 3 nanocomposite in the enhanced coagulation process along with precipitated flocs recirculation. In this study, the synthesis of Fe 2 O 3-Mn 2 O 3 and PTC and their characteristics, the effective parameters in the enhanced ...

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  • Treatment of sulfide-rich UASB effluent: comparison

    2012-6-1 · In the present study, polyaluminium chloride (PACl, liquid & solid-type), ferric alum and Fe-salts (ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride) were used as coagulants and their effectiveness was compared. Optimization of doses of the chosen coagulants/salts, were carried out with the objective of achieving discharge standards with respect to COD, BOD ...

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  • Effect of cations on the removal rate of chloride ions

    2021-3-17 · Precipitation dechlorination has the advantage of being a simple process with a low cost. However, there are few reports on the effect of cations on dechlorination. In this study, we investigated the effect of cations in high-salt wastewater on the removal of chlorine ions by cuprous chloride precipitation and analysed the corresponding mechanism.

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  • APPENDIX 2A: Review of Recent Studies and Trials on ...

    2003-2-24 · A 2.2.3.1 In the SSDS Stage 1 Dosing and Disinfection Study, ferric chloride, ferric sulphate, ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate (alum), poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) and two cationic polymers were selected for evaluation in laboratory-scale jar tests and column tests. Anionic

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  • Optimizing Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment

    2019-3-16 · The optimal coagulant (15 mg/L ferric chloride) and flocculant (0.5 mg/L poly aluminum chloride (PACl)) combination achieved total COD, soluble COD, total suspended solids (TSS), and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies of 76, 58, 89, and 84, respectively, in a full-scale

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  • Cost-effective removal of COD in the pre-treatment of ...

    2019-9-26 · Under the optimal operational conditions (pH = 7.5, T = 18 °C) the treatment of wastewater from paper industries by coagulation has led to a reduction of 70% COD for wastewater discharged. In terms of the investigated paper industry wastewater, polyaluminium chloride appears to be most suitable for treatment of high COD concentration.

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  • Modified coagulation processes using polyferric

    2021-4-7 · In a study, optimal doses for ferric chloride, alum, and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were reported 400, 300, and 200 mg/L, respectively, at optimum pH 7, and initial dye concentration of 25 mg/L with removal efficiencies of 81, 92, and 91%, respectively, for RB19 dye (Assadi et al. 2013). It indicates the superiority of PFC and PTC over ferric ...

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  • Roles of iron species and pH optimization on sewage

    The estimated cost of the composite conditioner, Fenton's reagent and lime, is USD 43.8/t DS, which is less than that of ferric chloride and lime (USD 54/t DS). Furthermore, pH of the final filtrate using this composite conditioner is about 6.6. Comparatively, that using ferric chloride and lime is as high as 12.4.

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  • Preparation and Characteristics of Polyaluminium

    Clay-brine process employing activated clay, NaCl, HCl, and HF as raw materials is the primarily advanced technology to synthesize cryolite in the present industrial grade. However, plenty of byproducts of fluorine-containing waste HCl at the concentration of about 10%~12% could not be utilized comprehensively and are even hazardous to the environment.

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  • Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes

    2017-10-18 · The price can fluctuate. The components used to make ferric chloride, whether the iron or the hydrochloric acid, go up and down quite a bit in price, which can greatly affect the price of ferric chloride itself. Currently, ferric chloride users are facing cost increases potentially as high as 40%.

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  • Fabrication and characterization of poly(ferric chloride ...

    2014-4-2 · Derived mainly from processes including bleaching, rinsing, dyeing, printing and starching, the printing, and dyeing, wastewater was characterized by high chromaticity, large emission, complex composition, high levels of organic pollutants, and poor biodegradability [1–3].Due to the presence of toxic (hazardous) substances in dyeing wastewater and its severe contamination to the environment ...

    Get Price
  • USING POLYALUMINIUM COAGULANTS IN WATER

    2017-8-1 · Polyaluminium chloride (PACl), Aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), Coagulants, Water Treatment 1.0 INTRODUCTION Alum (aluminium sulphate) is the most commonly used coagulant in Australian water treatment plants, low cost being its major attraction. Alum however, has a number of disadvantages: ♦ limited coagulation pH range: 5.5 to 6.5,

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  • Evaluation of Ferric Chloride as a Coagulant for Cork ...

    2005-7-8 · The optimal conditions found for the settling process were not the same as those that had been determined in the first part of the study for the elimination of organic matter. Finally, taking into account economic and practical reasons, the Talmadge−Fitch method is used to apply the results to the design of a clarifier−thickener unit to ...

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  • APPENDIX 2A: Review of Recent Studies and Trials on ...

    2003-2-24 · A 2.2.3.1 In the SSDS Stage 1 Dosing and Disinfection Study, ferric chloride, ferric sulphate, ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate (alum), poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) and two cationic polymers were selected for evaluation in laboratory-scale jar tests and column tests. Anionic

    Get Price
  • USING POLYALUMINIUM COAGULANTS IN WATER

    2017-8-1 · Polyaluminium chloride (PACl), Aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), Coagulants, Water Treatment 1.0 INTRODUCTION Alum (aluminium sulphate) is the most commonly used coagulant in Australian water treatment plants, low cost being its major attraction. Alum however, has a number of disadvantages: ♦ limited coagulation pH range: 5.5 to 6.5,

    Get Price
  • Fabrication and characterization of poly(ferric chloride ...

    2014-4-2 · But the maximal and optimal -35 value is not achievable for zeta potential of the formed -40 flocs due to its continuous increase during coagulation 10 20 30 40 50 60 process using three flocculants. ... This study showed and polyferric chloride-polyamine composite coagulant for syn- conclusively evidence for a synergistic effect thetic dying ...

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  • Pretreatment for seawater desalination by flocculation ...

    2020-4-22 · 2.1.2 Flocculants . Ferric chloride (FeCl 3) was selected as a conventional flocculant and used as a stock solution (Fe3+ = 1,000mg/L) due to its high effectiveness in DOC removal and low molecular weight organic matter through a complexation mechanism [8]. FeCl 3 was used in 5 different doses from 0.5mg Fe3+/L to 4.0mg Fe3+/L. . The procedure of the preparation of modified poly ferric ...

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  • Cost-effective removal of COD in the pre-treatment of ...

    2019-9-26 · Under the optimal operational conditions (pH = 7.5, T = 18 °C) the treatment of wastewater from paper industries by coagulation has led to a reduction of 70% COD for wastewater discharged. In terms of the investigated paper industry wastewater, polyaluminium chloride appears to be most suitable for treatment of high COD concentration.

    Get Price
  • Efficiency comparison of alum and ferric chloride ...

    2016-4-14 · while for ferric chloride was obtained 72, 60 and 98% respectively. The optimum pH 7 and 5 were obtained for alum and ferric chloride respectively. Based on the results, it can be concluded that COD, TSS and dye removal using ferric chloride has higher efficiency than alum. Therefore, application of ferric chloride in the same conditions is ...

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  • Optimization and economic evaluation of modified ...

    2018-10-17 · Chemicals. Poly-aluminum chloride (Al 2 (OH) n Cl 6−n.YH 2 O, Al 2 O 3 = 30%wt, basicity = 65% and pH = 3) was used as a coagulant and anionic (A 300), cationic (C 270) and nonionic polymers, as the coagulant aids were provided from AquaTech Company, Switzerland.. Preparation of solution. In order to prepare a 10 percent clear solution for coagulant, 10 g of PAC was dissolved to 100 mL of ...

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  • Study on Environmental Materials with Treatment of

    This study aimed at, pre-treatment of sweet potato starch wastewater and acquisition the application conditions of environmental materials though coagulation precipitation. The removal rates of COD and turbidity were investigated by process to find kind and quantity of suitable coagulant, quantity of coagulate aids, pH and setting time. The results showed that poly aluminum ferric chloride ...

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  • Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Smart

    2013-2-4 · The ferric laurate was precipitated by adding 10% aqueous ferric chloride dropwise to the obtained solution. By controlling the addition of ferric chloride solution, the pH was adjusted to 6 and 8. Finally, the suspension was transferred to a 1‐L measuring flask and 30 mL of ferric …

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  • Study on the effect of chitosan conditioning on sludge ...

    2019-2-1 · For example, Zhu et al. (Zhu et al. 2007) studied the treatment of excess sludge with PAM (polyacrylamide) - PAFC (polymeric ferric chloride), and found that when the total dosage of flocculants was 190 mg/L, the moisture content in sludge decreased from 97% to 79%, and the sludge volume decreased by 86%.

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  • Poly Ferric Chloride (PFC) Market Report | Global

    Poly Ferric Chloride (PFC) Industry Latest Research Report. Complete Market Research, Market Analysis, CAGR, Trends, Major Players, Market Share, Market Size, Forecast.

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  • Poly Ferric Chloride - PFC Market Report 2021 |

    +1 312-376-8303. [email protected] Reports. Aerospace & Defense; Agriculture; Automobile & Transportation

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  • global poly aluminium ferric chloride market segmen

    Global Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride Market Segment. The report on Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride Market offers in-depth analysis of market trends, drivers, restraints, opportunities etc. Along with qualitative information, this report includes the quantitative analysis of various segments in terms of market share, growth, opportunity analysis, market value, etc. for the forecast years.

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  • Studying the Characteristics of Polypyrrole and its

    2019-8-2 · for 5 hours. The optimal conditions for PPy and its composites preparation are summarized in Table 1. In a typical experiment 1 mL of pyrrole monomer was added to stirred aqueous or non-aqueous solutions 100 mL containing 4.8 g of ferric chloride and 0.6 …

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  • Roles of iron species and pH optimization on sewage

    The estimated cost of the composite conditioner, Fenton's reagent and lime, is USD 43.8/t DS, which is less than that of ferric chloride and lime (USD 54/t DS). Furthermore, pH of the final filtrate using this composite conditioner is about 6.6. Comparatively, that using ferric chloride and lime is as high as 12.4.

    Get Price
  • ISSN: 0975-766X CODEN: IJPTFI Available Online through ...

    2016-7-24 · The results showed that after using the poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate coagulants, in the turbidity of 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 NTU, the pH level have reduced in a way that by increasing each mg/l poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride about 0.01 unit pH have reduced.

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  • polyaluminum ferric chloride | Scientific.Net

    Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Materials Science. Defect and Diffusion Forum

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  • Poly Ferric Chloride Factory, Custom Poly Ferric

    Looking for poly ferric chloride factory direct sale? You can buy factory price poly ferric chloride from a great list of reliable China poly ferric chloride manufacturers, suppliers, traders or plants verified by a third-party inspector. Source with confidence. -page2

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  • Optimization and economic evaluation of modified ...

    2018-10-17 · Chemicals. Poly-aluminum chloride (Al 2 (OH) n Cl 6−n.YH 2 O, Al 2 O 3 = 30%wt, basicity = 65% and pH = 3) was used as a coagulant and anionic (A 300), cationic (C 270) and nonionic polymers, as the coagulant aids were provided from AquaTech Company, Switzerland.. Preparation of solution. In order to prepare a 10 percent clear solution for coagulant, 10 g of PAC was dissolved to 100 mL of ...

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  • Poly ferric chloride Manufacturers & Suppliers, China

    poly ferric chloride manufacturer/supplier, China poly ferric chloride manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese poly ferric chloride manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on Made-in-China.com.

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  • Enhanced Removal of Heavy Metals in Primary Treatment ...

    2013-9-30 · The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of alum, ferric chloride, and polymer on the removal efficiencies of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc from raw wastewater by CEPT, while attaining a TSS removal goal of 80%. The objectives were to define optimal system operating parameters, compare

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  • Abstract - CORE

    2018-4-16 · of poly aluminum chloride coagulant is higher than other coagulants . Data from this study also showed current cost of coagulant for coagulation in the water industry and the amount of water needed to purify the consumption of poly-aluminum chloride, it is higher than other coagulants.

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  • A Comparison Of Aluminum And Iron-based Coagulants

    2020-10-13 · Ferric chloride and ACH were observed to obtain the highest DOC (85% and 70%, respectively) and color (98% and 97%, respectively) removals at the lowest dose concentrations (120 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively).

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  • S. Gautam and G. Saini - GJESM

    2021-6-30 · Ferric chloride (FeCl 3) Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) Plantago major L. Iron(III) chloride hexahydrate Malva sylvestris (mallow) Hibiscus Rosa sinensis Poly aluminum chloride (PAC) Ocimum Basilicum Trigonella foenum-graecus Lime (CaO) Sechium edule (Chayote) Dolichos lablab Magnesium chloride (MgCl 3) Plantago ovata Cicer arietinum

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  • ISSN: 0975-766X CODEN: IJPTFI Available Online through ...

    2016-7-24 · The results showed that after using the poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate coagulants, in the turbidity of 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 NTU, the pH level have reduced in a way that by increasing each mg/l poly aluminum chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride about 0.01 unit pH have reduced.

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  • Comparing Aluminium Sulfate and Poly-Aluminium

    2021-7-9 · removal efficiency in water treatment plants of Iran. In this study, the effectiveness of aluminium sulfate and poly-aluminum chloride was evaluated at different pH values and coagulant dosage in order to find optimal operational conditions for low to high turbidity waters. The influence of lime, as a coagulant aid, on coagulation

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  • wastewater treatment plant reduces cod and uses ...

    2021-7-7 · Cost-effective removal of COD in the pre-treatment of wastewater from the paper industry | Water Science and Technology | IWA Publishing. Under the optimal operational conditions (pH = 7.5, T = 18 C) the treatment of wastewater from paper industries by coagulation has led to a reduction of 70% COD for wastewater discharged.

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  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment

    The optimal working condition could be at pH 7.0, settling time 15 min, and velocity gradient of 174.80 and 15.56 s−1 for mixing and reaction phase respectively. While the coagulant dosage depends on raw water attributes, which had a decisive effect on CEPT treatment performances. However, the three coagulants behaved poorly in nitrogen removal.

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  • Cost Of Wastewater Treatment Processes - EPA

    ----- COST OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES by DORR-OLIVER, INCORPORATED David DiGregorio, Project Engineer The Advanced Waste Treatment Research Laboratory Robert A. Taft Water Research Center This report is submitted in fulfillment of Contract No. 14-12-60 between the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration and Dorr- Oliver, Incorporated.

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  • Optimization of Polyaluminum Chloride-Chitosan

    The molecular structure of a material substantially determines its final application performance [7,8].Chitosan (CTS) is a natural polymer derived from renewable resources [], and it is an important polymer flocculant for water treatment as a cationic polysaccharide.Compared to traditional chemical flocculants, CTS has the following advantages: low dosage, good turbidity removal, high removal ...

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  • Final Report: Small-Scale Studies on Low Intensity ...

    2020-2-5 · • Ferric sulfate, ferric chloride and poly ferric sulfate ... cost and environmental measures. The model used (and weighted) different measures of performance, including turbidity and phosphorus removal ... does not occur under more optimal dosing conditions. Overdosing is defined in this

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  • Abstract - CORE

    2018-4-16 · of poly aluminum chloride coagulant is higher than other coagulants . Data from this study also showed current cost of coagulant for coagulation in the water industry and the amount of water needed to purify the consumption of poly-aluminum chloride, it is higher than other coagulants.

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  • Multiple response optimization of the coagulation

    2016-5-18 · The optimal conditions were calculated to be: dosage of 28 mg/L, pH 8.5, and basicity 0.001, respectively. ... treatment of leachate using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) and alum. ... removal using ...

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  • wastewater treatment plant reduces cod and uses ...

    2021-7-7 · Cost-effective removal of COD in the pre-treatment of wastewater from the paper industry | Water Science and Technology | IWA Publishing. Under the optimal operational conditions (pH = 7.5, T = 18 C) the treatment of wastewater from paper industries by coagulation has led to a reduction of 70% COD for wastewater discharged.

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  • Ferric sulfate | Fe2(SO4)3 - PubChem

    2017-7-11 · Liquid catalyzed fuel cell (LCFC) is a kind of redox flow fuel cell directly converting carbohydrates to electricity. To improve its efficiency, ferric chloride (FeCl3) was introduced as main ...

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  • Fabrication of graphite/MgO-reinforced poly(vinyl

    2017-7-24 · Flocculation is one of the most effective methods of oilfield wastewater treatment. It is a physical–chemical treatment process that uses continuously recycled media and a variety of additives to improve the settling properties of SSs through improved floc bridging (Borchate et al. 2014).Flocculation is employed for the treatment of high-phosphorus hematite flotation wastewater with a ...

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  • Advanced redox flow fuel cell using ferric chloride as ...

    2020-6-27 · Pyrrole to ferric chloride hexahydrate ratio (monomer to oxidant ratio) was kept at 2.33. In this procedure, 4.649 g, that is, 0.016 M, ferric chloride hexahydrate was dissolved in 100 ml double distilled water and 0.0072 mol (0.50 ml) of pyrrole was added in the degassed oxidant solution.

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  • The flocculation mechanism and treatment of oily ...

    2018-6-28 · The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate chitosan flocculation performance in the harvesting of C. vulgaris biomass and determine its optimal dose, (2) to disclose the sedimentation properties of C. vulgaris biomass flocculated by chitosan, (3) to reveal the recyclability of the spent medium from flocculation to regrow microalgae and ...

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