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application of anionic polyacrylamide environmental impact

  • Anionic Polyacrylamide Effects on Soil Sorption and ...

    2002-7-1 · There is a concern regarding the environmental impact of PAM after its application. The effects of anionic PAM on the sorption characteristics of four widely used herbicides (metolachlor, atrazine, 2,4-D, and picloram) on two natural soils were assessed in batch equilibrium experiments.

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  • ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION

    ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION . Code 450 (Ac) DEFINITION . Application of water-soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to meet a resource concern. PURPOSE . This practice may be applied to achieve one or more of the following purposes: • Reduce soil erosion by water or wind. • Improve water quality.

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  • Application of Polyacrylamide to Enhance Silt Fence ...

    Studies have shown that clay flocculation can be induced by anionic polyacrylamides (PAM) in conjunction with divalent cations. Although anionic PAM is available commercially with different charge densities and molecular weights, the flocculation characteristics of a given anionic …

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  • The impact of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on ...

    With the purpose of improving the ultrafiltration (UF) efficiency, anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) has been used as a coagulant aid in the flocculation-UF process. In this study, the impact of APAM on UF efficiency has been investigated with regard to membrane fouling, membrane cleaning and effluent quality.

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  • Application of polyacrylamide to reduce phosphorus

    2010-7-1 · Use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to control phosphorus (P) losses from a Chinese purple soil was studied in both a laboratory soil column experiment and a field plot experiment on a steep slope (27%). Treatments in the column study were a control, and PAM mixed uniformly into the soil at rates of 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.20%.

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  • Polyacrylamide degradation and its implications in ...

    2018-9-7 · High MW anionic PAM is also the most commonly applied polymer in enhanced oil recovery applications; the use of surfactant-polymer flooding can increase …

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  • POLYACRYLAMIDE IN AGRICULTURE AND

    2010-11-20 · tioner use from the 1950s until the 1990s was application of sufficient con-ditioner material to physically modify soil properties to the depth of tillage. This mode of treatment usually entails multiple application operations, either as bulk solid materials or as sprayed liquids, solutions, or slurries at cumulative rates of 100 kg ha-1 or more.

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  • Biological activity and environmental impact of

    2002-11-1 · Anionic surfactants not only facilitate the dissolution and removal of various environmental pollutants but they can increase adsorption under given conditions. Thus, anionic surfactants can increase the adsorption of tetrachloride, naphthalene and phenanthrene on the surface of aluminium oxide resulting in improved water pollution control (Park and Jaffe, 1993) .

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  • Determination of Polyacrylamides in Reclaimed Water

    2015-4-30 · Application Note Introduction Polyacrylamides are often used as settling aids in water clarification processes. These polymers act as flocculants to help remove contaminants from the water stream. Residual polyacrylamides in the reclaimed water can affect subsequent processing operations and have an obvious environmental impact. A fast analytical

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  • Polyacrylamide Soil Conditioners: The Impact on ...

    2020-11-26 · This paper aims to review polyacrylamides structure, synthesis methods, and their adsorption on the surface of clay minerals. The literature studies on the impacts of PAM adsorption on clay particles’ aggregation and heavy metal ions’ accumulation in soil environments …

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  • The impact of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on ...

    2017-2-16 · The ecotoxicity of ANT is still largely unknown, but it has high environmental persistence (Tan et al. 2013). Here, the hydrophilic ANT was further used to study the impact of APAM on UF effluent quality. The present work can be a theoretical guidance for the application of APAM as a coagulant-aid in the flocculation-UF process.

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  • ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION

    ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION . Code 450 (Ac) DEFINITION . Application of water-soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to meet a resource concern. PURPOSE . This practice may be applied to achieve one or more of the following purposes: • Reduce soil erosion by water or wind. • Improve water quality.

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  • ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION

    ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION CODE 450 (ac) DEFINITION Application of water-soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to the soil. PURPOSE This practice is used to accomplish one or more of the following purposes: • Reduce soil erosion by water or wind.

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  • Application of Polyacrylamide to Enhance Silt Fence ...

    Although anionic PAM is available commercially with different charge densities and molecular weights, the flocculation characteristics of a given anionic PAM are not the same for all soils. The purpose of this study is to investigate the flocculation characteristics of three anionic PAMs on four different soil types.

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  • Application of anionic polyacrylamide-Henan Yuanbo ...

    2018-4-25 · Anionic polyacrylamide is an ultra-high molecular weight polymer copolymerized by acrylamide and acrylate. It has a molecular weight of 18 million or more. It has strong adsorption and bridging efficiency. It can be used according to different uses and …

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  • The influence of high application rates of

    Abstract Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is a highly effective erosion preventing and infiltration enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1–10 g m −3 in furrow irrigation water. PAM greatly reduces sediment, nutrients, pesticides and coliform bacteria in irrigation runoff. There has been some concern about the potential for PAM accumulation to affect microbial ecology.

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  • Application of polyacrylamide to reduce phosphorus

    2010-7-1 · Use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to control phosphorus (P) losses from a Chinese purple soil was studied in both a laboratory soil column experiment and a field plot experiment on a steep slope (27%). Treatments in the column study were a control, and PAM mixed uniformly into the soil at rates of 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.20%.

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  • POLYACRYLAMIDE IN AGRICULTURE AND

    2010-11-20 · POLYACRYLAMIDE IN AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAND MANAGEMENT R. E. Sojka,1 D. L. Bjorneberg,1 J. A. Entry,1 R. D. Lentzl and W. J. Orts2 1 Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, 3793N-3600E Kimberly, Idaho 83341

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  • Biological activity and environmental impact of

    2002-11-1 · The relationship between their chemical structure, physicochemical parameters, biological activity and environmental impact is not well understood. A considerable number of data are needed for the development of new anionic surfactants and for the successful application of the existing ones to reduce the adversary and to promote beneficial effects.

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  • Cationic polyacrylamide copolymers (PAMs):

    2018-5-18 · Cationic polyacrylamide copolymers (PAMs) are used for sludge dewatering in municipal waste water treatment and might enter the environment by spreading of the sludge on agricultural land. Concern has been expressed since little is known about the degradation of PAMs in soils. To obtain detailed information on the polymer’s fate in the soil compartment, the degradation of 14C …

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  • ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION

    2017-8-25 · ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION . Code 450 (Ac) DEFINITION Application of water-soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to meet a resource concern. PURPOSE This practice may be applied to achieve one or more of the following purposes: • Reduce soil erosion by water or wind. • Improve water quality.

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  • The influence of high application rates of

    Abstract Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is a highly effective erosion preventing and infiltration enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1–10 g m −3 in furrow irrigation water. PAM greatly reduces sediment, nutrients, pesticides and coliform bacteria in irrigation runoff. There has been some concern about the potential for PAM accumulation to affect microbial ecology.

    Get Price
  • ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION

    2016-9-8 · ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION (Ac.) CODE 450 . DEFINITION . Application of water-soluble Anionic Polyacrylamide (PAM) to meet a resource concern. PURPOSES . This practice may be applied as part of a resource management system to achieve one or more of the following purposes: • Reduce soil erosion by water or wind • Improve water ...

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  • Using Polyacrylamide (PAM) to Reduce Erosion on ...

    2018-4-25 · Anionic polyacrylamide is an ultra-high molecular weight polymer copolymerized by acrylamide and acrylate. It has a molecular weight of 18 million or more. It has strong adsorption and bridging efficiency. It can be used according to different uses and …

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  • Application of anionic polyacrylamide-Henan Yuanbo ...

    2006-11-6 · irrigations. These results indicate that application of anionic PAM with wastewater during surface irrigation can be an effective treatment to reduce runoff and erosion during subsequent rainfall events. Keywords. Erosion control, Lagoon effluent, PAM, Polyacrylamide, Soil amendments, Soil erosion, Wastewater irrigation.

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  • USE OF POLYACRYLAMIDE IN SIMULATED LAND

    2017-3-22 · Mg mol-1) anionic polymers (Fig. 1). Figure 1. Molecular structure of anionic polyacrylamide. The percent of sodium acrylate copolymerized in PAM is expressed as the charge density, which generally ranges from 2 to 40% for commercially available PAMs (Barvenik, 1994). Specifically, the charge density is the percent of

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  • Polyacrylamide: A Review of the Use, Effectiveness, and ...

    2014-1-15 · Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion. Prats SA(1), Martins MA, Malvar MC, Ben-Hur M, Keizer JJ. Author information: (1)Centre for Environmental and Maritime Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

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  • Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue

    strength additives anionic polyacrylamide in ukraine. Application of amphoteric polyacrylamide solely or with the . Amphoteric polyacrylamide (AmPAM) has been widely used in the wet-end of the papermaking process as a strength additive because of its unique features. AmPAM is a typical polyampholyte, carrying both basic and acid groups along ...

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  • application of amphoteric polyacrylamide solely

    A review on application of flocculants in wastewater treatment. A review on application of flocculants in wastewater treatment. More than 85% removal of suspended solids from sewage wastewater and tannery effluent was achieved by using 0.12 mg/L of okra gum and 0.08 mg/L Fenugreek mucilage Industry area Type of wastewater Treatment process Coagulant (commonly is cationic) Cationic flocculant

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  • ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION

    2016-9-8 · ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION (Ac.) CODE 450 . DEFINITION . Application of water-soluble Anionic Polyacrylamide (PAM) to meet a resource concern. PURPOSES . This practice may be applied as part of a resource management system to achieve one or more of the following purposes: • Reduce soil erosion by water or wind • Improve water ...

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  • ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION

    2017-1-4 · ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) APPLICATION (Ac.) CODE 450 . DEFINITION . Application of water-soluble Anionic Polyacrylamide (PAM) to meet a resource concern. PURPOSE . This practice may be applied as part of a resource management system to achieve one or more of the following purposes: • Reduce soil erosion contained in the by water or wind.

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  • Synergistic effects of anionic polyacrylamide and

    Excessive application of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to the agriculture soil can lead to the P loss to the aquatic ecosystem. Three soils from different land use (tea, paddy, and vegetable soils) were treated with biogas slurry (BS) at rate of 79.8 kg ha-1, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at rate of 12.5, 25 and 50 kg ha-1, Gypsum (Gy) at rate of 5t ha-1, and the control (Ck) without treatment, to ...

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  • ESC 4 Performance Evaluation of Anionic Polymers for ...

    2018-5-29 · Anionic Polyacrylamide Application Guide for Urban Construction in Ontario. ... Standards for Use Under Part XV.1 of the Environmental Protection Act (2011) ... critical environmental receptors are at risk of adverse impact. Anionic PAM for erosion control Guidelines.

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  • Polyacrylamide: A Review of the Use, Effectiveness, and ...

    2017-3-22 · Mg mol-1) anionic polymers (Fig. 1). Figure 1. Molecular structure of anionic polyacrylamide. The percent of sodium acrylate copolymerized in PAM is expressed as the charge density, which generally ranges from 2 to 40% for commercially available PAMs (Barvenik, 1994). Specifically, the charge density is the percent of

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  • Toxicity of Anionic Polyacrylamide Formulations when

    2010-11-20 · Weston et al.: Toxicity of Anionic Polyacrylamide Formulations when Used in Agriculture 239 species commonly used in the United States for freshwater toxic-ity testing. Quantitative data are limited to a couple older publi-cations with scant description of methods or vague toxicity end-points (McCollister et al., 1965; Beim and Beim, 1994).

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  • POLYACRYLAMIDE SOIL AMENDMENT EFFECTS ON

    2004-1-23 · cap. The soil amendment treatments used were an untreated control, an application of 80 kg ha–1 anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) as a liquid spray, and 80 kg ha–1 PAM applied as a liquid spray combined with a dry granular application of 5 Mg ha–1 of gypsum. A barrel collection system was used to measure total runoff volume and sediment loss.

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  • [PDF] Polyacrylamide in agriculture and environmental

    Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) has been sold since 1995 to reduce irrigation‐induced erosion and enhance infiltration. Its soil stabilizing and flocculating properties improve runoff water quality by reducing sediments, N, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total P, chemical oxygen demand (COD), pesticides, weed seeds, and microorganisms in runoff. PAM used for erosion control is a large ...

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  • Potential Use of Polyacrylamide for Soil Erosion Control ...

    soil surface structures and improve pore continuity (Orts et al., 2008). An example is the application of soil amendments, including gypsiferous materials and anionic polyacrylamide (Cochrane et al., 2005). The aim of this paper is to discuss some points of interests for application of polyacrylamide …

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  • ESC 4 Performance Evaluation of Anionic Polymers for ...

    2018-5-29 · Anionic Polyacrylamide Application Guide for Urban Construction in Ontario. ... Standards for Use Under Part XV.1 of the Environmental Protection Act (2011) ... critical environmental receptors are at risk of adverse impact. Anionic PAM for erosion control Guidelines.

    Get Price
  • [PDF] Polyacrylamide in agriculture and environmental

    Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) has been sold since 1995 to reduce irrigation‐induced erosion and enhance infiltration. Its soil stabilizing and flocculating properties improve runoff water quality by reducing sediments, N, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total P, chemical oxygen demand (COD), pesticides, weed seeds, and microorganisms in runoff. PAM used for erosion control is a large ...

    Get Price
  • Toxicity of Anionic Polyacrylamide Formulations when

    2010-11-20 · Weston et al.: Toxicity of Anionic Polyacrylamide Formulations when Used in Agriculture 239 species commonly used in the United States for freshwater toxic-ity testing. Quantitative data are limited to a couple older publi-cations with scant description of methods or vague toxicity end-points (McCollister et al., 1965; Beim and Beim, 1994).

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  • Physiological Response of Daphnia magna to Linear

    2010-2-18 · Linear anionic polyacrylamide (LA-PAM) is being considered as a soil amendment to reduce seepage and infiltration in unlined earthen canals. While polyacrylamides have been extensively used for potable water treatment, dewatering sewage sludge, coal and mine processing, paper manufacturing, and agriculture, little is known about its ecological impact to aquatic ecosystems. Acute toxicity (LC50 ...

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  • The stability of the polyacrylamide flocculant under ...

    The polyacrylamide has a wide model range, the most common models are the anionic polyacrylamide, the cationic polyacrylamide and the nonionic polyacrylamide. The effective PH value is different to different types of polyacrylamide, so in the selection of the polyacrylamide, the influence of the PH value to the polyacrylamide must be considered.

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  • Biological activity and environmental impact of

    The impact of anionic surfactants on enzyme activities has been extensively demonstrated. Thus, it was proven that linear alkylbenzene sulfonate can accumulate in the hepatic liposomes of the rat and can inhibit the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase (Bragadin et al., 1996).

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  • Polyacrylamide (Non-ionic, Cationic, Anionic, and

    2014-6-3 · The polyacrylamide market is segmented based on product types as non-ionic, cationic, anionic and others; based on end-use as water treatment, petroleum, paper making and …

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  • Flocculant polyacrylamide for domestic sewage

    2019-12-23 · Polyacrylamide is used for the treatment of domestic sewage and organic wastewater. Polyacrylamide is positively polarized in a compatible or alkaline medium. In this way, polyacrylamide flocculates and precipitates sewage with negatively charged particles in …

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  • Physiological response of Daphnia magna to linear

    Linear anionic polyacrylamide (LA-PAM) is being considered as a soil amendment to reduce seepage and infiltration in unlined earthen canals. While polyacrylamides have been extensively used for potable water treatment, dewatering sewage sludge, coal and mine processing, paper manufacturing, and agriculture, little is known about its ecological impact to aquatic ecosystems.

    Get Price
  • Reducing Water Seepage with Anionic Polyacrylamide ...

    2009-2-1 · Researchers used column and flume experiments with uniform silica sand with and without suspended solids to examine the extent and longevity of hydraulic conductivity reduction (HCR) resulting from three anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application methods, liquid injection, slurry surface, and granular surface application.

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  • potential environmental impacts of dust suppressants ...

    2019-7-19 · POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF DUST SUPPRESSANTS: 'AVOIDING ANOTHER BEACH'. AN EXPERT PANEL SUMMARY, LAS VEGAS, NEVADA, MAY 30-31, 2002. Recognizing that it is important to achieve and maintain clean air, the concern that prompted this report is that application of dust suppressants to improve air quality could potentially have other adverse environmental …

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  • Application of polyacrylamide reducing nitrate-N and ...

    2021-2-25 · Application of polyacrylamide to reduce phosphorus losses from a Chinese Purple Soil: A laboratory and field investigation. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(7): 1437-1445. [24] Teng, L. L., Z. Z. Luo, T. Jiang, and S. Q. Wei. 2008. Effect of polyacrylamide on phosphorus adsorption in purple soil. Ecology & Environment, 17(1): 388-392

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  • Polyacrylamide - austieca.com.au

    strict environmental controls specified by suitably trained and experiences personnel. Description Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a polymer-based chemical surface stabiliser used for erosion control, chemical flocculation, and as a soil binder. Only anionic products are used. Cationic Polyacrylamide should not be used. Purpose PAMs can be used as a ...

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  • polyacrylamide addition to soils: impacts on soil

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) and Soils. Polyacrylamide (PAM) and Soils JANUARY 1970 JUNE 1996 105 citations from AGRICOLA by Joe Makuch Water Quality Information Center ***** This electronic bibliography is intended primarily to provide awareness of recent investigations and discussions of a topic and is not intended to be in-depth and exhaustive.

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  • E ectiveness of Polyacrylamide in Reducing Runo and Soil ...

    2020-2-21 · soil properties through the application of chemical amendments to the soil, such as polyacrylamide (PAM) [22] to decrease aggregate disintegration. PAM is a water-soluble, organic anionic polymer having a long molecule of identical atom chains held together by covalent bonds [24] that form bridges with the soil particles through cations in soil

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  • The stability of the polyacrylamide flocculant under ...

    The polyacrylamide has a wide model range, the most common models are the anionic polyacrylamide, the cationic polyacrylamide and the nonionic polyacrylamide. The effective PH value is different to different types of polyacrylamide, so in the selection of the polyacrylamide, the influence of the PH value to the polyacrylamide must be considered.

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  • polyacrylamide (pam) for runoff - aladine.be

    POLYACRYLAMIDE (PAM) FOR IRRIGATION RUNOFF MANAGEMENT. irrigation; runoff was sampled at 4 and 9 hours for P. PAM had little effect on ortho P but a 25% reduction in total P. Lentz et al. (1998) compared treating furrow advance flow (only) with 10 ppm …

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  • Biological activity and environmental impact of

    The impact of anionic surfactants on enzyme activities has been extensively demonstrated. Thus, it was proven that linear alkylbenzene sulfonate can accumulate in the hepatic liposomes of the rat and can inhibit the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase (Bragadin et al., 1996).

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  • Transfer and degradation of polyacrylamide based ...

    2021-6-13 · 1 Title: Transfer and degradation of polyacrylamide based flocculants in hydrosystems: a review 2 3 Authors: A. G. Guezennec1, C. Michel1, K.Bru1, S. Touze1, N. Desroche2, I. Mnif3, M. Motelica-Heino4 4 1 BRGM 5 2 Nexidia SAS, 15 Rue de Mayence 21000 DIJON France 36 Université de Nice 7 4 ISTO, UMR 7327 CNRS-Université d’Orléans, 1A rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans cedex 2

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  • the problems analysis of anionic polyacrylamide –

    Anionic Polyacrylamide is a white, granular, odorless polymer that yields a gel-like material with the addition of water. It is insoluble in water and causes extremely slippery conditions when wet. Although not regulated as a hazardous material, the respirable dust is potential respiratory tract irritant.

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  • Application of polyacrylamide reducing nitrate-N and ...

    2021-2-25 · Application of polyacrylamide to reduce phosphorus losses from a Chinese Purple Soil: A laboratory and field investigation. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(7): 1437-1445. [24] Teng, L. L., Z. Z. Luo, T. Jiang, and S. Q. Wei. 2008. Effect of polyacrylamide on phosphorus adsorption in purple soil. Ecology & Environment, 17(1): 388-392

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  • Reducing Water Seepage with Anionic Polyacrylamide ...

    2009-2-1 · Researchers used column and flume experiments with uniform silica sand with and without suspended solids to examine the extent and longevity of hydraulic conductivity reduction (HCR) resulting from three anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application methods, liquid injection, slurry surface, and granular surface application.

    Get Price
  • zambia impact of anionic and cationic polyacrylamide

    Anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) is a water-soluble high molecular polymer. It is mainly used for flocculation, sedimentation, and clarification treatment of various industrial wastewater, such as wastewater from iron and steel plants, wastewater from electroplating plants, metallurgical wastewater, and coal washing wastewater.

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  • Review of the Application of Polyacrylamides for Soil ...

    2011-3-11 · Environmental and safety considerations of anionic PAMs have been reviewed by Barvenik (1994) who concluded that when used at prescribed rates, anionic PAMs are environmentally safe. Negative impacts have not been documented for aquatic macrofauna, edaphic microorganisms, or crop species for the anionic PAM when applied at

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  • potential environmental impacts of dust suppressants ...

    2019-7-19 · POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF DUST SUPPRESSANTS: 'AVOIDING ANOTHER BEACH'. AN EXPERT PANEL SUMMARY, LAS VEGAS, NEVADA, MAY 30-31, 2002. Recognizing that it is important to achieve and maintain clean air, the concern that prompted this report is that application of dust suppressants to improve air quality could potentially have other adverse environmental …

    Get Price
  • Effect of Anionic Polyacrylamide on the Structural ...

    Taking the superfine tailings slurry (STS), fine tailings slurry (FTS), and unclassified tailings slurry (UTS) of a gold mine as examples, a series of laboratory shear tests were conducted to investigate the effect of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on the structural stability of the thickened tailings slurry in pipeline transportation.

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  • High Polyacrylamide Application Rates Do Not Affect ...

    2012-11-25 · Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is a linear, water-soluble anionic polymer that is widely used for erosion control and water quality protection. There has been an issue whether this formulation could possibly have negative effects on soil microbial diversity by altering microbial binding to soil particles or to one another and thus restricting their mobility and role in carbon and nutrient ...

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  • SCHREYER HONORS COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF

    Anionic, negatively charged forms are much less toxic and are widely used to address environmental issues (McLaughlin, 2007). PAM acts as an effective chemical flocculent. Anionic PAM binds to suspended sediments largely through cation-bridging, pulling particles together forming flocs. The reaction is rapid and irreversible.

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  • Polyacrylamide Removes Microorganisms and

    2021-6-23 · Polyacrylamide Use for Removal of Enteric Bacteria and Nutrients from Wastewater. Sojka and Entry (2000) found that after water traveled 1 meter at 7.5 and 15.5 liter min -1, PAM-treatment reduced algae, total bacterial and microbial biomass and …

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